"In the mathematical sense, despite all the years of researching the way the universe works, science has proved nothing." ~ Geraint Lewis

"The important bit, the bit that defines science, is whether such mathematical laws are an accurate description of the universe we see around us. To do this we must collect data, through observations and experiments of natural phenomena, and then compare them to the mathematical predictions and laws..." ~ Geraint Lewis

"...science is like an ongoing courtroom drama, with a continual stream of evidence being presented to the jury... the jury is constantly updating its view of who is responsible for the data. But no verdict of absolute guilt or innocence is ever returned, as evidence is continually gathered... All the jury can do is decide that one suspect is more guilty than another." ~ Geraint Lewis

Where’s the proof in science? There is none Geraint Lewis, Professor of Astrophysics Sep 23 2014 https://theconversation.com/wheres-the-proof-in-science-there-is-none-30570

##### Excerpts

"...one word is rarely spoken or printed in science and that word is “proof”. In fact, science has little to do with “proving” anything. These words may have caused a worried expression to creep across your face, especially as the media continually tells us that science proves things..."

"Mathematicians prove things, and this means something quite specific. Mathematicians lay out a particular set of ground rules, known as axioms, and determine which statements are true within the framework."

"But there is mathematics in science, you cry. I just lectured on magnetic fields, line integrals and vector calculus, and I am sure my students would readily agree that there is plenty of maths in science. ...And the approach is same as other mathematics: define the axioms, examine the consequences. Einstein’s famous E=mc2, drawn from the postulates of how the laws of electromagnetism are seen by differing observers, his special theory of relativity, is a prime example of this. But such mathematical proofs are only a part of the story of science. The important bit, the bit that defines science, is whether such mathematical laws are an accurate description of the universe we see around us. To do this we must collect data, through observations and experiments of natural phenomena, and then compare them to the mathematical predictions and laws. The word central to this endeavour is “evidence”."

"...So, science is like an ongoing courtroom drama, with a continual stream of evidence being presented to the jury. But there is no single suspect and new suspects regularly wheeled in. In light of the growing evidence, the jury is constantly updating its view of who is responsible for the data. But no verdict of absolute guilt or innocence is ever returned, as evidence is continually gathered and more suspects are paraded in front of the court. All the jury can do is decide that one suspect is more guilty than another."

"In the mathematical sense, despite all the years of researching the way the universe works, science has proved nothing. Every theoretical model is a good description of the universe around us, at least within some range of scales that it is useful. But exploring into new territories reveals deficiencies that lower our belief in whether a particular description continues to accurately represent our experiments, while our belief in alternatives can grown."

"I think it is best to leave the last word to one of the greatest physicists, Richard Feynman, on what being a scientist is all about: I have approximate answers and possible beliefs in different degrees of certainty about different things, but I’m not absolutely sure of anything."